Introduction
In the previous post we showed how `ggplot2`

can be used to effectively and quickly render a periodic table overlaid with near-arbitrary elemental data.

Let’s use this newfound ability to visualise all the datasets we have available to us.

library ( ggplot2 )
library ( dplyr )
library ( grid )
library ( knitr )

Available elemental properties
Some properties are not suited for this type of visualisation, and will be excluded (see `donotplot`

vector below). Others are better visualised as discrete variables, although they are numeric in format. Such properties will be converted back to character (see `numericasdiscrete`

below).

# drop some redundant columns
values <- values [, - grep ( pattern = "^Absolute.*" , names ( values ))]
units <- units [, - grep ( pattern = "^Absolute.*" , names ( units ))]
# some columns are not suitable for this format of visualisation
donotplot <-
c ( "Name" ,
"Symbol" ,
"Group" ,
"Graph.Group" ,
"Period" ,
"Graph.Period" ,
"EU_Number" ,
"RTECS_Number" ,
"Alternate_Names" ,
"Electron_Configuration" ,
"CAS_Number" ,
"CID_Number" ,
"Gmelin_Number" ,
"NSC_Number" ,
"Quantum_Numbers" ,
"Space_Group_Name" ,
"Space_Group_Number" )
# some numeric columns are better visualised as discrete variables
numericasdiscrete <-
c ( "DOT_Hazard_Class" ,
"NFPA_Fire_Rating" ,
"NFPA_Health_Rating" ,
"NFPA_Reactivity_Rating" )
for ( i in 1 : length ( numericasdiscrete )) {
values [, which ( names ( values ) == numericasdiscrete [ i ])] <-
as.character ( values [, which ( names ( values ) == numericasdiscrete [ i ])])
}

Here are all the elemental properties that have been deemed suitable for visualisation.

str ( values )

```
## 'data.frame': 118 obs. of 80 variables:
## $ Name : chr "Hydrogen" "Helium" "Lithium" "Beryllium" ...
## $ Symbol : chr "H" "He" "Li" "Be" ...
## $ Atomic_Number : num 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ...
## $ Atomic_Weight : num 1.01 4 6.94 9.01 10.81 ...
## $ Density : num 8.99e-02 1.78e-01 5.35e+02 1.85e+03 2.46e+03 ...
## $ Melting_Point : num 14 NA 454 1560 2348 ...
## $ Boiling_Point : num 20.28 4.22 1615.15 2743.15 4273.15 ...
## $ Phase : chr "Gas" "Gas" "Solid" "Solid" ...
## $ Critical_Pressure : num 1293000 NA NA NA 3390000 ...
## $ Critical_Temperature : num 32.97 5.19 3223 NA NA ...
## $ Heat_of_Fusion : num 0.558 0.02 3 7.95 50 105 0.36 0.222 0.26 0.34 ...
## $ Heat_of_Vaporization : num 0.452 0.083 147 297 507 715 2.79 3.41 3.27 1.75 ...
## $ Heat_of_Combustion : num NA NA -298 NA NA -393 NA NA NA NA ...
## $ Specific_Heat : num 14300 NA 1820 240 1040 165 1030 154 904 140 ...
## $ Adiabatic_Index : chr "7/5" "5/3" NA NA ...
## $ Neel_Point : num NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA ...
## $ Thermal_Conductivity : num 0.18 0.151 85 190 27 ...
## $ Thermal_Expansion : num NA NA 4.60e-05 1.13e-05 6.00e-06 7.10e-06 NA NA NA NA ...
## $ Density_Liquid : num NA NA 512 1690 2080 NA NA NA NA NA ...
## $ Molar_Volume : num 1.12e-02 2.24e-02 1.30e-05 4.88e-06 4.39e-06 ...
## $ Brinell_Hardness : num NA NA NA 6e+08 NA NA NA NA NA NA ...
## $ Mohs_Hardness : num NA NA 600000 5500000 9300000 500000 NA NA NA NA ...
## $ Vickers_Hardness : num NA NA NA 1.67e+09 4.90e+10 ...
## $ Bulk_Modulus : num NA NA 1.1e+10 1.3e+11 3.2e+11 ...
## $ Shear_Modulus : num NA NA 4.20e+09 1.32e+11 NA ...
## $ Young_Modulus : num NA NA 4.90e+09 2.87e+11 NA ...
## $ Poisson_Ratio : num NA NA NA 0.032 NA NA NA NA NA NA ...
## $ Refractive_Index : num 1 1 NA NA NA ...
## $ Speed_of_Sound : num 1270 970 6000 13000 16200 ...
## $ Valence : num 1 0 1 2 3 4 3 2 1 0 ...
## $ Electronegativity : num 2.2 NA 0.98 1.57 2.04 2.55 3.04 3.44 3.98 NA ...
## $ ElectronAffinity : num 72.8 0 59.6 0 26.7 ...
## $ Autoignition_Point : num 809 NA 452 NA NA ...
## $ Flashpoint : num 255 NA NA NA NA ...
## $ DOT_Hazard_Class : chr "2.1" "2.2" "4.3" "6.1" ...
## $ DOT_Numbers : num 1966 1963 1415 1567 NA ...
## $ EU_Number : chr "EU215-605-7" "EU231-168-5" "EU231-102-5" "EU231-150-7" ...
## $ NFPA_Fire_Rating : chr "4" "0" "2" "1" ...
## $ NFPA_Health_Rating : chr "3" "1" "3" "3" ...
## $ NFPA_Reactivity_Rating : chr "0" "0" "2" "0" ...
## $ RTECS_Number : chr "RTECSMW8900000" NA "RTECSDS1750000" "RTECSLW3850000" ...
## $ Alternate_Names : chr NA NA NA NA ...
## $ Block : chr "s" "p" "s" "s" ...
## $ Group : chr "1" "18" "1" "2" ...
## $ Period : chr "1" "1" "2" "2" ...
## $ Electron_Configuration : chr "1s1" "[Xe]4f56s2" "[He]2s2" "[Xe]4f75d16s2" ...
## $ Color : chr "Colorless" "Colorless" "Silver" "SlateGray" ...
## $ Gas_phase : chr "Diatomic" "Monoatomic" NA NA ...
## $ CAS_Number : chr "CAS1333-74-0" "CAS7440-59-7" "CAS7439-93-2" "CAS7440-41-7" ...
## $ CID_Number : chr "CID783" "CID23987" "CID3028194" "CID5460467" ...
## $ Gmelin_Number : chr "Gmelin3" "Gmelin16294" "Gmelin30" "Gmelin16256" ...
## $ NSC_Number : chr NA NA NA NA ...
## $ Electrical_Type : chr NA NA "Conductor" "Conductor" ...
## $ Electrical_Conductivity : num NA NA 1.1e+07 2.5e+07 1.0e-04 1.0e+05 NA NA NA NA ...
## $ Resistivity : num NA NA 9.4e-08 4.0e-08 1.0e+04 1.0e-05 NA NA NA NA ...
## $ Superconducting_Point : num NA NA NA 0.026 NA NA NA NA NA NA ...
## $ Magnetic_Type : chr "Diamagnetic" "Diamagnetic" "Paramagnetic" "Diamagnetic" ...
## $ Curie_Point : num NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA ...
## $ Mass_Magnetic_Susceptibility : num -2.48e-08 -5.90e-09 6.30e-09 -1.26e-08 -8.70e-09 ...
## $ Molar_Magnetic_Susceptibility : num -2.50e-11 -2.36e-11 4.37e-11 -1.14e-10 -9.41e-11 ...
## $ Volume_Magnetic_Susceptibility: num -2.23e-09 -1.05e-09 3.37e-06 -2.33e-05 -2.14e-05 ...
## $ Percent_in_Universe : num 7.5e+01 2.3e+01 6.0e-07 1.0e-07 1.0e-07 5.0e-01 1.0e-01 1.0 4.0e-05 1.3e-01 ...
## $ Percent_in_Sun : num 7.5e+01 2.3e+01 6.0e-09 1.0e-08 2.0e-07 3.0e-01 1.0e-01 9.0e-01 5.0e-05 1.0e-01 ...
## $ Percent_in_Meteorites : num 2.4 NA 1.7e-04 2.9e-06 1.6e-04 1.5 1.4e-01 4.0e+01 8.7e-03 NA ...
## $ Percent_in_Earths_Crust : num 1.5e-01 5.5e-07 1.7e-03 1.9e-04 8.6e-04 1.8e-01 2.0e-03 4.6e+01 5.4e-02 3.0e-07 ...
## $ Percent_in_Oceans : num 1.1e+01 7.2e-10 1.8e-05 6.0e-11 4.4e-04 ...
## $ Percent_in_Humans : num 1.0e+01 NA 3.0e-06 4.0e-08 7.0e-05 2.3e+01 2.6 6.1e+01 3.7e-03 NA ...
## $ Atomic_Radius : num 5.30e-11 3.10e-11 1.67e-10 1.12e-10 8.70e-11 ...
## $ Covalent_Radius : num 3.70e-11 3.20e-11 1.34e-10 9.00e-11 8.20e-11 ...
## $ Van_der_Waals_Radius : num 1.20e-10 1.40e-10 1.82e-10 NA NA 1.70e-10 1.55e-10 1.52e-10 1.47e-10 1.54e-10 ...
## $ Space_Group_Name : chr "P63/mmc" "Fm_\n3m" "Im_\n3m" "P63/mmc" ...
## $ Space_Group_Number : num 194 225 229 194 166 194 194 12 15 225 ...
## $ HalfLife : num Inf Inf Inf Inf Inf ...
## $ Lifetime : num Inf Inf Inf Inf Inf ...
## $ Decay_Mode : chr NA NA NA NA ...
## $ Quantum_Numbers : chr "2S1/2" "1S0" "2S1/2" "1S0" ...
## $ Neutron_Cross_Section : num 3.32e-01 7.00e-03 4.50e-02 9.20e-03 7.55e+02 3.50e-03 1.91 2.80e-04 9.60e-03 4.00e-02 ...
## $ Neutron_Mass_Absorption : num 1.1e-02 1.0e-05 NA 3.0e-05 2.4 1.5e-05 4.8e-03 1.0e-06 2.0e-05 6.0e-04 ...
## $ Graph.Period : num 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ...
## $ Graph.Group : num 1 18 1 2 13 14 15 16 17 18 ...
```

Properties, visualised
Note: the physical state at which the values are stated are not always determined in this dataset. This is a weakness of the web-scraping algorithm, which does not record the notes accompanying many datapoints. This means that the usability of these plots are limited in scope. If someone has an open, curated dataset of elemental properties available, let me know!

We can plot periodic tables of all available properties with just one chunk (using some looping, of course).

for ( k in 1 : dim ( values )[ 2 ]) {
# withhold some columns from plotting
if ( names ( values )[ k ] %in% donotplot ) {
next
}
# numeric or character column?
if ( class ( values [, k ]) == "numeric" ) {
p <-
continuous_property_as_periodic_table ( data = data.frame (
Graph.Group = values $ Graph.Group ,
Graph.Period = values $ Graph.Period ,
Symbol = values $ Symbol ,
Property = gsub ( "_" , " " , names ( values )[ k ]),
Values = values [, k ],
Unit = units [, k ]))
print ( p )
cat ( paste ( "Summary of" , gsub ( "_" , " " , names ( values )[ k ])), "\n" )
print ( summary ( values [, k ]))
}
if ( class ( values [, k ]) == "character" ) {
p <-
discrete_property_as_periodic_table ( data = data.frame (
Graph.Group = values $ Graph.Group ,
Graph.Period = values $ Graph.Period ,
Symbol = values $ Symbol ,
Values = values [, k ]),
scale.title = gsub ( "_" , " " , names ( values )[ k ]),
scale.ncol = 3 )
print ( p )
cat ( paste ( "Count of" , gsub ( "_" , " " , names ( values )[ k ])), "\n" )
print ( count ( values , vars = values [, k ]))
}
}

```
## Summary of Atomic Number
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max.
## 1.00 30.25 59.50 59.50 88.75 118.00
```

```
## Summary of Atomic Weight
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 1.008 65.410 140.900 144.900 226.000 294.000 1
```

```
## Summary of Density
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.09 2545.00 7140.00 7646.00 10380.00 22650.00 23
```

```
## Summary of Melting Point
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 14.01 544.40 1204.00 1297.00 1811.00 3823.00 17
```

```
## Summary of Boiling Point
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 4.22 1194.00 2816.00 2559.00 3604.00 5869.00 24
```

```
## Count of Phase
## Source: local data frame [4 x 2]
##
## vars n
## (chr) (int)
## 1 Gas 11
## 2 Liquid 2
## 3 Solid 86
## 4 NA 19
```

```
## Summary of Critical Pressure
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 227000 5043000 7991000 20650000 16000000 172000000 97
```

```
## Summary of Critical Temperature
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 5.19 150.90 416.90 963.70 1766.00 3223.00 97
```

```
## Summary of Heat of Fusion
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.02 5.40 10.00 13.77 18.70 105.00 25
```

```
## Summary of Heat of Vaporization
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.083 73.220 272.500 265.900 380.000 800.000 24
```

```
## Summary of Heat of Combustion
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## -9055.0 -829.0 -536.0 -1732.0 -345.5 -182.0 111
```

```
## Summary of Specific Heat
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 63.0 159.6 241.0 624.5 496.8 14300.0 30
```

```
## Count of Adiabatic Index
## Source: local data frame [3 x 2]
##
## vars n
## (chr) (int)
## 1 5/3 6
## 2 7/5 5
## 3 NA 107
```

```
## Summary of Neel Point
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 12.5 69.0 100.0 127.2 155.0 393.0 107
```

```
## Summary of Thermal Conductivity
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.0036 10.0000 23.5000 58.0400 81.5000 430.0000 24
```

```
## Summary of Thermal Expansion
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.00000 0.00001 0.00001 0.00002 0.00002 0.00012 55
```

```
## Summary of Density Liquid
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 512 4240 6980 7706 9330 20000 49
```

```
## Summary of Molar Volume
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.000004 0.000010 0.000017 0.002021 0.000023 0.022820 23
```

```
## Summary of Brinell Hardness
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 1.400e+05 1.995e+08 4.900e+08 7.087e+08 8.070e+08 3.920e+09 59
```

```
## Summary of Mohs Hardness
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 200000 1875000 3000000 3740000 6000000 9300000 63
```

```
## Summary of Vickers Hardness
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 1.670e+08 4.060e+08 6.080e+08 2.108e+09 1.203e+09 4.900e+10 79
```

```
## Summary of Bulk Modulus
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 1.100e+09 2.800e+10 4.500e+10 9.079e+10 1.400e+11 3.800e+11 49
```

```
## Summary of Shear Modulus
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 1.300e+09 1.575e+10 2.650e+10 4.685e+10 4.725e+10 2.220e+11 58
```

```
## Summary of Young Modulus
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 1.700e+09 3.700e+10 6.800e+10 1.105e+11 1.290e+11 5.280e+11 55
```

```
## Summary of Poisson Ratio
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.0320 0.2525 0.2800 0.2924 0.3375 0.4500 64
```

```
## Summary of Refractive Index
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 1.000 1.000 1.001 1.075 1.001 2.417 99
```

```
## Summary of Speed of Sound
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 206 1948 2750 3506 4626 18350 46
```

```
## Summary of Valence
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.000 3.000 4.000 3.776 5.000 7.000 11
```

```
## Summary of Electronegativity
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.700 1.285 1.625 1.737 2.175 3.980 24
```

```
## Summary of ElectronAffinity
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.00 21.08 50.00 76.16 105.40 349.00 32
```

```
## Summary of Autoignition Point
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 373.2 430.4 593.2 594.6 728.2 903.2 100
```

```
## Summary of Flashpoint
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 255.2 260.6 290.2 463.6 655.6 918.2 112
```

```
## Count of DOT Hazard Class
## Source: local data frame [10 x 2]
##
## vars n
## (chr) (int)
## 1 2.1 1
## 2 2.2 7
## 3 2.3 1
## 4 4.1 26
## 5 4.2 8
## 6 4.3 8
## 7 6.1 6
## 8 7 3
## 9 8 4
## 10 NA 54
```

```
## Summary of DOT Numbers
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 1073 1748 2730 2516 3089 9192 52
```

```
## Count of NFPA Fire Rating
## Source: local data frame [6 x 2]
##
## vars n
## (chr) (int)
## 1 0 17
## 2 1 13
## 3 2 6
## 4 3 7
## 5 4 4
## 6 NA 71
```

```
## Count of NFPA Health Rating
## Source: local data frame [6 x 2]
##
## vars n
## (chr) (int)
## 1 0 3
## 2 1 15
## 3 2 13
## 4 3 12
## 5 4 2
## 6 NA 73
```

```
## Count of NFPA Reactivity Rating
## Source: local data frame [6 x 2]
##
## vars n
## (chr) (int)
## 1 0 26
## 2 1 7
## 3 2 9
## 4 3 1
## 5 4 1
## 6 NA 74
```

```
## Count of Block
## Source: local data frame [4 x 2]
##
## vars n
## (chr) (int)
## 1 d 40
## 2 f 28
## 3 p 37
## 4 s 13
```

```
## Count of Color
## Source: local data frame [10 x 2]
##
## vars n
## (chr) (int)
## 1 Black 2
## 2 Colorless 11
## 3 Copper 1
## 4 Gold 1
## 5 Gray 14
## 6 Red 1
## 7 Silver 59
## 8 SlateGray 5
## 9 Yellow 2
## 10 NA 22
```

```
## Count of Gas phase
## Source: local data frame [3 x 2]
##
## vars n
## (chr) (int)
## 1 Diatomic 5
## 2 Monoatomic 6
## 3 NA 107
```

```
## Count of Electrical Type
## Source: local data frame [4 x 2]
##
## vars n
## (chr) (int)
## 1 Conductor 72
## 2 Insulator 5
## 3 Semiconductor 3
## 4 NA 38
```

```
## Summary of Electrical Conductivity
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0 1100000 4200000 8775000 11250000 62000000 38
```

```
## Summary of Resistivity
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.00e+00 0.00e+00 0.00e+00 1.25e+13 0.00e+00 1.00e+15 38
```

```
## Summary of Superconducting Point
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.015 0.490 1.083 2.059 3.410 9.250 85
```

```
## Count of Magnetic Type
## Source: local data frame [5 x 2]
##
## vars n
## (chr) (int)
## 1 Antiferromagnetic 1
## 2 Diamagnetic 31
## 3 Ferromagnetic 4
## 4 Paramagnetic 29
## 5 NA 53
```

```
## Summary of Curie Point
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 20.0 32.0 222.0 416.2 631.0 1394.0 109
```

```
## Summary of Mass Magnetic Susceptibility
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0e+00 0e+00 0e+00 0e+00 0e+00 1e-05 36
```

```
## Summary of Molar Magnetic Susceptibility
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0 0 0 0 0 0 36
```

```
## Summary of Volume Magnetic Susceptibility
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## -0.00017 -0.00001 0.00001 0.00340 0.00026 0.11180 37
```

```
## Summary of Percent in Universe
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.2060 0.0002 75.0000 35
```

```
## Summary of Percent in Sun
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.95900 0.00002 75.00000 14
```

```
## Summary of Percent in Meteorites
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.00000 0.00000 0.00002 0.94260 0.00071 40.00000 11
```

```
## Summary of Percent in Earths Crust
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.00000 0.00000 0.00011 0.88240 0.00298 46.00000 4
```

```
## Summary of Percent in Oceans
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.9125 0.0000 86.0000 8
```

```
## Summary of Percent in Humans
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 1.33100 0.00014 61.00000 43
```

```
## Summary of Atomic Radius
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0 0 0 0 0 0 34
```

```
## Summary of Covalent Radius
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0 0 0 0 0 0 47
```

```
## Summary of Van der Waals Radius
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0 0 0 0 0 0 80
```

```
## Summary of HalfLife
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max.
## 0.000e+00 4.333e+11 Inf Inf Inf Inf
```

```
## Summary of Lifetime
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max.
## 0.000e+00 6.247e+11 Inf Inf Inf Inf
```

```
## Count of Decay Mode
## Source: local data frame [5 x 2]
##
## vars n
## (chr) (int)
## 1 AlphaEmission 32
## 2 BetaDecay 3
## 3 BetaPlusDecay 1
## 4 ElectronCapture 1
## 5 NA 81
```

```
## Summary of Neutron Cross Section
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.00 1.16 8.28 871.60 81.50 49000.00 20
```

```
## Summary of Neutron Mass Absorption
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max. NA's
## 0.0000 0.0006 0.0023 0.2093 0.0165 7.3000 35
```

And that’s all for today.

sessionInfo()
```
## R version 3.3.1 (2016-06-21)
## Platform: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu (64-bit)
## Running under: Ubuntu 14.04.4 LTS
##
## locale:
## [1] LC_CTYPE=en_US.UTF-8 LC_NUMERIC=C
## [3] LC_TIME=sv_SE.UTF-8 LC_COLLATE=en_US.UTF-8
## [5] LC_MONETARY=sv_SE.UTF-8 LC_MESSAGES=en_US.UTF-8
## [7] LC_PAPER=sv_SE.UTF-8 LC_NAME=C
## [9] LC_ADDRESS=C LC_TELEPHONE=C
## [11] LC_MEASUREMENT=sv_SE.UTF-8 LC_IDENTIFICATION=C
##
## attached base packages:
## [1] grid stats graphics grDevices utils datasets base
##
## other attached packages:
## [1] dplyr_0.4.3 ggplot2_2.1.0 knitr_1.13
##
## loaded via a namespace (and not attached):
## [1] Rcpp_0.12.5 digest_0.6.9 assertthat_0.1 R6_2.1.2
## [5] plyr_1.8.3 gtable_0.2.0 DBI_0.4-1 formatR_1.4
## [9] magrittr_1.5 evaluate_0.9 scales_0.4.0 stringi_1.0-1
## [13] lazyeval_0.1.10 labeling_0.3 tools_3.3.1 stringr_1.0.0
## [17] munsell_0.4.3 parallel_3.3.1 colorspace_1.2-6 methods_3.3.1
```